Investing in cryptocurrency might seem overwhelming if you’re not familiar with the process. Even if you’re a seasoned investor, entering the world of cryptocurrency involves familiarizing yourself with new technologies, unfamiliar terms and companies you may not have known before.
A great first step is to educate yourself about cryptocurrency in general before making any decisions.
If you decide cryptocurrency is a smart investment for you, you’ll want to think about both how to buy cryptocurrency and how to store it once you own it.
Buying cryptocurrency for beginners
Buying cryptocurrencies securely involves four basic steps:
1. Decide where to buy it
There are many ways to buy cryptocurrency safely, though the most accessible method for beginners is likely to be a centralized exchange. Centralized exchanges act as a third party overseeing transactions to give customers confidence that they are getting what they pay for. These exchanges typically sell crypto at market rates, and they make money on fees for various aspects of their services.
If you’re more accustomed to traditional brokerage accounts, there are a few online brokers that offer access to cryptocurrencies as well as stocks. Of the online brokers reviewed by NerdWallet, these include Robinhood, Webull, SoFi Active Investing and TradeStation. If you’re looking for an exchange that operates solely within the cryptocurrency world, look for pure-play crypto exchanges. These platforms, such as Coinbase, Gemini and Kraken, won’t give you access to core assets like stocks and bonds, but they typically have a much better selection of cryptocurrencies, and more on-platform crypto storage options.
Though centralized exchanges are relatively easy to use, they also can be an attractive target for hackers given the volume of crypto that flows through them.
For more advanced users, there are decentralized exchanges whose fees can be lower than those charged by centralized platforms. Those can be more difficult to use and demand more technical know-how, but they may also offer some security benefits because there is no single target for a cyberattack. Cryptocurrencies can also be traded through peer-to-peer transactions.
2. Choose how you’ll pay
While there are thousands of cryptocurrencies being traded around the world, you’ll find that the most popular options are widely available for purchase in fiat currencies such as the U.S. dollar. If you’re a first-time buyer, you’ll very likely have to use regular money to buy cryptocurrency.
3. Add value to your account
Depending on how you choose to pay, you may have to fund your account before purchasing any crypto. If you’re using fiat currency, most exchanges allow debit and bank transfers. Some also allow you to fund a purchase with your credit card, though this can be a risky move with a volatile asset like cryptocurrency because interest costs can deepen your losses if your investments decline in value.
If you already own cryptocurrency, you can transfer it into your account from a digital wallet or another platform, then use it to trade. Just be sure to verify that your crypto exchange allows trading between the assets you’re looking at. Not all cryptocurrencies can be directly traded for one another, and some platforms have more trading pairs than others.
Another thing to note is that exchanges’ fees vary depending on what you’re buying and how you’re buying it, so review these details carefully.
4. Select a cryptocurrency
There are many options for cryptocurrency investors, though there are none that are likely to be right for everyone. Before you buy, ask yourself what your goals are for this investment. Are you hoping it will increase in value? Are you interested in carrying out transactions using cryptocurrency? Are you interested in using the underlying technology via decentralized apps? These may help you make your decision.
Where to store your cryptocurrency
Once you’ve decided to buy crypto and determined which cryptocurrencies you want to invest in, your next decision will be how you want to store it safely.
This is an important choice. Crypto assets require a private key, which proves ownership of cryptocurrencies and is necessary for carrying out transactions. If you lose your private keys, you’ve lost your cryptocurrency. If someone gets your private keys, they can dispense with your cryptocurrencies however they want.
Crypto owners use digital wallets to store their holdings securely. There are multiple options to consider when it comes to digital wallets.
On-platform storage: Some people choose to keep their cryptocurrency on the exchange or platform where they got it. This has some advantages. It outsources the complexities to a third-party that brings some expertise to the table. You don’t have to keep track of your own private keys; all the information is right there when you log in. The drawback is that if the provider has a security breach outside of your control, or if someone hacks your individual credentials, your cryptocurrency could be at risk. On-platform storage is often used by people who think they might want to trade their crypto soon, or who want to participate in exchanges’ staking and rewards programs.
Noncustodial wallets: Because of the threat of hacking, it can be risky to leave large balances on crypto exchanges for longer than necessary. If you’re ready to dive into storing your own crypto, there are many options on the market. They are generally divided into two categories: hot wallets and cold wallets. Hot wallets have some online connectivity, which may make them easier to use but could expose you to some security vulnerabilities. Cold wallets are offline, physical devices that would be unreachable to anyone who does not have them in their material possession.